Particle precipitation possibly associated with large earthquake


KORONAS-FOTON (RussianSpaceWeb) | Orbit Data (Heavens-Above)
Subject: Earthquake in Japan
Date: Tue, 11 Aug 2009 15:26:22 +0300
From: dudnik Oleksiy.V.Dudnik@univer.kharkov.ua

I have looked at the STEP-F device data base in time last Earthquakes in Japan during last 2 days. I have found that there were 2 Earthquakes - on 9th August, 10h56minutes UTC with magnitude 7.0, and on 10th August. 20h07minutes UTC with magnitude 6.4 near Tokyo city.

I have found from my device measurements also that there are features in the fluxes of 2 low energy electron channels. Look , please, at the attachment - I wish to show deviations of electrons fluxes around starts of 2 last Earthquakes. The moments of earthquakes are shown by yellow lines. You can see strong precipitations from inner radiation belt in 2 energy channels at 20h12m UTC on 10th August. You can see also unusual feature of low energy electrons on 9th August before Earthquake, and also growth of electrons with energy 0.35 - 0.95 MeV during Earthquake on 9th August at 10h56m UT.



This orbit analysis was done by Dr. Goka

  • The unique satellite telescope of electrons and protons STEP-F started its work on February 20, 2009 on the board of spacecraft "Coronas-Photon"
  • First proton radiation maps have been obtained by the STEP-F instrument during flight tests of the "Coronas-Photon" satellite

  • Another Earthquake Possibility

    The Koronas-Foton was placed in southern hemisphere, and was not in even magnetic conjugate point of Japan.

    Recent Earthquake and News Headlines

  • Magnitude 6.7 IZU ISLANDS, JAPAN REGION August 12, 2009
  • Magnitude 6.4 NEAR THE SOUTH COAST OF HONSHU, JAPAN August 10, 2009
  • Magnitude 7.6 ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIA REGION August 10, 2009
  • Magnitude 6.6 SANTA CRUZ ISLANDS August 10, 2009
  • Magnitude 7.1 IZU ISLANDS, JAPAN REGION August 09, 2009
  • Magnitude 6.9 GULF OF CALIFORNIA August 03, 2009
  • Magnitude 7.6 OFF WEST COAST OF THE SOUTH ISLAND, N.Z. July 15, 2009

  • Subject: Re: EMSEV
    Date: Wed, 12 Aug 2009 11:56:05 +0300
    From: dudnik Oleksiy.V.Dudnik@univer.kharkov.ua

    Dear Dr. Kodama,

    May be you are right. May be it is response to Andaman EQ with stronger magnitude. It is not possible to interpret data so fast. But if you remember works of Prof. Galper from Moscow, MEPhI - they have written in their articles that precursors in high energy particles in the near Earth space can appear some hours and minutes before EQs.

    In our case temporal distance between Andaman and Japanese EQs was only 12 minutes! In both case satellite was in low latitudes - it even did not reached inner belt. And only on 20h 09 minutes it crossed inner belt, and you can see strong precipitation at the right edge of inner belt crossing.

    Please, look at the outer belt on ~ 20h 25 minutes - you will not be able to find precipitation! It says that the source of precipitation from inner belt on 20 h 12minutes can be placed at low latitudes - it can be only Earth origin. In the case of big magnetic storm, high speed solar wind streams, solar flares, etc. global precipitation starts from outer belt (not from inner belt). So. it is additional argument that the reason of precipitation is EQ.

    My best regards!

    Dr. Oleksiy Dudnik
    Head of Space Research Section, Physics&Technics Dept. Kharkiv National University
    Svobody Square, 461077 Kharkiv-77, UKRAINE
    Tel/Fax +380-57-7053400
    Tel +380-57-7053112
    mobile +380-50-6420015
    E-mail: Oleksiy.V.Dudnik@univer.kharkov.ua
    dudnik@kharkov.com
    oldudnik@mail.ru
    skype: oldudnik
    MEPhI
    Results of latest measurements, done by instruments of "CORONAS-Photon" satellite 19.08.09


  • 20-08-2009 Experiment "STEP-F" satellite "CORONAS-Photon": Sun "sleeping", and the radiation belts are outraged?
  • Observations in space can predict earthquakes
  • 24-08-2009 CORONAS-PHOTON: solar satellite on time will raise alarm

  • The Sun - under control

    For the benefit of human

    Now our new word in the instrument development field will help scientists say a new word in science. In fact, "STEP-F" will provide an opportunity to observe processes in the Solar system of a broader perspective. And "hide" anything from the people the Sun does not succeed. Deprive it of its secrets - no fancy scientific research, but crucial objective of planetary scale. How will evolve the main star of our Solar system is the safety of the Earth. We will not be able to affect the Sun metaphysics at all desire but the device might warn of impending disasters.


    The Sun and its corona, the scientists explained, are a natural laboratory for studying the fundamental characteristics of the plasma. The Earth' surrounding streams of high energy charged particles - precursors of magnetic storms, volcanic activity and Earthquakes. Thus, defining changes in the fluxes of charged protons, electrons and alpha-particles, can prevent many misfortunes.


    Located in the seismic zone Japan has sponsored the creation of the Ukrainian telescope because it shall be able to assist this country to search for precursors of earthquakes. Foreign grants simultaneously with financial assistance of National Space Agency of Ukraine, and the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine allowed to complete the project, initiated by scientists KhNU them. At that time we have hatched plans to run our own spacecraft group into orbit for the prediction of seismic activity on the Earth.


    Today, the space exploration - common deals of Earthlings, searching and using the information for joint aims. The data of the instrument will useful for example to prepare a mission to the Mars, during the flight to which the solar activity is expected to be decreased, while increasing the life-threatening for astronauts the intensity of protons. The complex of scientific apparatus "Photon" of the "Coronas-Photon" satellite should confirm or refute this hypothesis, so that people can protect future interplanetary flight.
    Source: The Sun - under control (Kharkov Izvestia, June 20, 2009, No. 74 (2043))
    Acknowledgement: I wish to express my gratitude to Dr. Dudnik who corrected the translation.

  • Ukrainian and Spanish experts from the universities of Kharkov and Alcala presented their compact satellite instrument SIDRA at conferences in Crimea, Spain and the U.S. (NKAU, 2009)

  • National Space Agency of Ukraine ANNUAL REPORT 2009

    In 2009 a successful space experiment was conducted on board of Russian space craft "Koronas-Foton" in measuring the flow of electrons and protons by means of "STEP-F" instrument developed in Ukraine. It is expected that discovered flows of low-energy electrons on the altitude of 600 km above Earth surface can become one of effective parameters for monitoring "space weather" (e.g. act as a forerunner of earthquakes).

    Preparation for conduction of scientific space experiment "Potential" (scientific program was elaborated and a set of scientific instruments designed and installed on "Sich-2" space craft) was done for observation of physical processes which form "space weather".

    It's anticipated in course of experiment to examine parameters of space environment (neutral, ionized and electric magnetic components) and their connection with crisis phenomena in the atmosphere. It will give an opportunity to make a significant step towards development of disasters monitoring system, which take place in lower atmosphere (hurricanes, movement of powerful weather fronts) and on the surface of Earth (earthquakes, powerful explosions etc.).

  • Specialists of Kharkiv National Research University named V.N. Karazin performed first tests a compact device SIDRA under the influence of ionizing radiation (NKAU, 2010/02/08)
    During the period of January, 18 - 23, 2010 in Transcarpathia region, Uzhgorod' Scientific-Research Institute of Electron Physics, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the test of laboratory model the compact satellite instrument SIDRA took place on its capacity under the influence of deeply penetrating ionizing radiation of high energy.
  • Elaborators of scientific space research instruments of Kharkiv National University named V.N. Karazin and the University of Turku, Finland, exchanged by their experience (NKAU, 2010/03/03)
    By an invitation of the University of Turku city, which is situated on the south-west coast of Finland, since 15th to 20th February main designer of the STEP-F instrument of the "Coronas-Photon" satellite, head of the space research sector of Kharkiv National University named V.N. Karazin O.V. Dudnik had visited mentioned above University to exchange by the experiences on the development of on-board devices to register high energy charged particles fluxes. Head of the laboratory with the similar title, Professor of Physics and Astronomy Department Eino Valtonen has been organized a workshop with participation of teachers and specialists, and with an oral report of Kharkiv National University' representative about new developments in space instrumentation and the scientific results obtained with a usage of the STEP-F device data. The new results on the possibility to register precursors of Earthquakes at an altitude of ~ 600 km above the Earth' surface by measuring the high energy charge particle fluxes had caused great interest and discussion.
  • An exchange by experience between developers of space apparatus of Physics&Technics Faculty and the University of Turku, Finland (V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, March 3, 2010)
    The study of an experience and expanding contacts with leading universities in Europe - this objective was the work trip of Physics&Technics Faculty' representative Oleksiy Dudnik to the University of Turku, Finland. Head of the Laboratory of Space Research, professor of the Physics and Astronomy Faculty Eino Valtonen had proposed him to present an oral report to Faculty's teachers, students and specialists about new developments in the field of space instrumentation, in particular the progress adjusting of compact satellite device of a new generation, as well as the scientific results obtained with a help of STEP-F device developed in the Kharkiv National University, and installed on a board a Russian spacecraft "CORONAS-PHOTON".

    Neither modern electronic means of information exchange nor several years' correspondence by e-mail does not have a tangible result, as all week direct communication within the walls of the famous European university. In particular, two-hour seminar with numerous photos and slides caused great interest in participants of the seminar who, it turned out, not so often see researchers from Ukraine. Keen interest aroused when some new results were presented about the possibility of registration the precursors of Earthquakes at an altitude of ~ 600 km above the Earth' surface by measuring charged particles fluxes of high energy.

    IKI Workshop Results of Space Experiments: KORONAS-FOTON, 2010

  • The second workshop on the scientific space project "CORONAS-PHOTON" held in Tarusa (NKAU, May 2010)
    Representative of Ukraine, principal investigator of the experiment with the STEP-F instrument on board the spacecraft "CORONAS-PHOTON", head of the Space Research Sector of Kharkiv National University named V.N. Karazin O. V. Dudnik has presented the report titled "Registration of solar cosmic rays and high energy magnetospheric particles with a help of STEP-F device in May and September 2009". It is planned to publish Proceedings of workshop.

  • Scientists of our University and Space Research Center of Polish Academy of Sciences had conducted the first comparison of results obtained from the Ukrainian and Polish devices installed on board the Russian CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. (V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, October 11-15, 2010)
    O.V.Dudnik has reported on a joint seminar of the Institute of Astronomy at the University of Wroclaw and the Solar Physics Division, Space Research Centre with the analysis of electron fluxes dynamics in different energy ranges in May, 2009, during and after moderate geomagnetic storm; described the difference between outer and inner radiation belts' behaviors during this period.
  • The University took part in the work of the International Conference "Space research in the states - participants of CIS: integration, capacity development and legal aspects" (V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, October 16, 2011)
    Principal Investigator of the project, professor of the National Research Nuclear University "MEPhI" Yuriy Kotov, had presented the report "Investigations of solar activity in the CORONAS-PHOTON project, and prospects for further joint space research" at the section "Plasma, astrophysical and planetary studies". In which he described the significant results of the Earth's radiation belts exploration by the STEP-F device. It was discussed also the proposition of the Moscow leading institution NRNU "MEPhI" to realize new satellite experiment "Solar monitor", in which the Kharkiv National University named after V.N. Karazin will also participate with the new compact device SIDRA.


    Principal Investigator of the "Coronas-Photon" project, professor of the National Research Nuclear University "MEPhI"
    Yuriy Kotov speak the results obtained with the help of the STEP-F device
  • First concept of compact instrument SIDRA for measurements of particle fluxes in the space (Journal of Kharkiv University, No.969, 2011)
    The main objectives that can be achieved in the course of the satellite experiment with the SIDRA device are:

    1) measurements and investigation of the energetic spectra and fluxes dynamics of high energy charged particles in the near Earth and interplanetary space,

    2) the study the nature of the micro bursts of low- and middle- energy electrons at low and near-equatorial latitudes behind the radiation belts of the Earth.

    Additional tasks that can be solved during the exploitation of the scientific instrument during the warranty lifetime of the spacecraft are:

    a) the study of the relationship between low-frequency electromagnetic and electrostatic waves at the heights of the satellite and on the ground level with non-stationery fluxes of the high-energy electrons,

    b) an investigation of preferable influence of radial and pitch-angle diffusion of particles at different altitudes as a function of the magnetic and seismic activity level.


    * SIDRA: Space Instrument for Determination of digital components Microelectronic Radiation tolerance (Space Research Group, Universidad de Alcala)
  • If you want, you can predict an earthquake... (Palindrome Lugansk, June 8, 2012)
    A small box with a lens weighing 18 kg, which is attached to an artificial Earth satellite. Here is the most famous Ukrainian invention of recent years in the field of space exploration - satellite telescope of electrons and protons, "STEP-F."
    It was created by scientists of Kharkiv National University led by PhD Alexei Dudnik. It was launched on the orbit in 2009 on board the Russian research satellite "CORONAS-Photon", which was the single scientific spacecraft in Russia at that times.
    Ukraine and Russia have started to explore together the Sun in 1992, and since then the KNU provides Russian satellites for its vehicles. Our device measures the speed and direction of the solar wind and its effect on the Earth's magnetosphere. Such research will allow scientists to understand: what is the reason of the storms on the Sun. Also telescope captures how rapidly the Earth's radiation belts are changing: it may help to predict an earthquake.


    Ukrainian unit did not disappoint its developers. But summed batteries of Russian-made satellite. All systems of the spacecraft was turned off in non full year, and no responded anymore though they were designed to run for the period from three to five years. As a result the work of the unit is paralyzed, it is weightlessness of orbital debris, and the next period of the Solar activity, for which it was launched, will be remain unexplored. Although even in quiet times for the Sun was able to collect unique data, which will long be analyzed, scientists around the world, says Alexei Dudnik.
    As it turned out, it's simple. Ukrainians are not only able to make good movies, cook, sing and dance. If you want, it may be possible to predict eartquake. Sometimes even a few minutes can save incredible amount of lives.
  • About how to operate the spacecraft (Experimental basement, 24-Jun-2012)

  • 4th International HEPPA Workshop in conjunction with SPARC/SOLARIS (National Center for Atmospheric Research, 9-12 October 2012)
    Unexpected behavior of subrelativistic electron fluxes under Earth radiation belts

    Oleksiy Dudnik


    The analysis of electron flux variations under Earth radiation belts at heights ~550 km in May and August, 2009, is performed on the base of experimental data obtained from the satellite telescope of electrons and protons STEP-F as a part of scientific apparatus complex PHOTON on board the Russian spacecraft CORONAS-Photon. The temporal connection of particle intensity changes that were detected by the view cone of the device under radiation belts and in the South Magnetic Anomaly (SAA) zone with various phases of weak magnetic storm of May, 7-8, as well as with parameters of high speed solar wind streams are investigated. Changing electron fluxes in a wide range of energies are detected at any geographic latitude and longitude due to the large geometric factor of detectors (~21 cm2 sr), and associated with the dynamics of the solar wind parameters as well as with the growth of magnetospheric activity. Throughout the whole month, in the range of low and medium energies of electrons there were recorded 2 inner radiation belts: the main and famous one on L-shell, 2.28, and sporadically appearing an additional inner belt on L-shell, 1.61, where L is McIlwain parameter. The appearance of the latter belt at height 550 km as well as the particle fluxes in both belts has been depended on the level of geomagnetic activity. Both inner belts had registered on the geographic longitudes which are not coincided with those ones of SAA zone location. The next feature is the appearance of enlarged electron fluxes in inner belts followed by significant growth in the same energy ranges in the outer radiation belt at the initial phase of magnetic storm. It was repeated for both: weak magnetic storm of May, 7-8 (Dst <30 nT) and sub-storm of May, 14-15. The empirical values of various energy electron lifetimes in the basic inner and outer radiation belts are defined. The electron lifetime at low Earth orbits (LEO) is ~1.5 days for inner belt, and ~4.5 days for the same energy ranges. At the same time there is the tendency of lifetime declining in the outer radiation belt with the increase of electron energy as well as dependence of lifetime values as a function of pitch-angle at fixed energy. The most unexpected in the behavior of electrons with energies E<0.51 MeV in August, 8-10 were the registration of micro bursts of particles at low geographic latitudes and near equatorial zones, i.e. in those areas where they should not be detected at all according to the various models of radiation belts (AE8, SALAMMBO, SPENVIS, etc.).
    Duration of these bursts varies from few seconds to several ten seconds; the spectral flux density is close to that one in the basic inner radiation belt. August of 2009 was characterized by almost full absence of solar activity. The search of possible source of such unusual and sporadic electron fluxes in the southern near equatorial hemisphere had led to the hypothesis that mentioned electrons are connected with the strong Earthquake of magnitude 7.1 at Izu Islands, Japan region (August, 9) and of magnitude 7.5 at Andaman Islands, India region (August, 10). Such possibility and features of micro bursts are discussed.
  • Progress in EUV & X-ray spectroscopy and imaging (Polish Academy of Sciences, 20-22. 11. 2012)
    Radiation belts of the Earth: overview, methods of investigations, recent observations on the CORONAS-Photon spacecraft

    The overview of spatial zones with enhanced high energy ionized particles fluxes in the Earth' magnetosphere is presented. Chemical composition, energy spectra, particle flux dynamics are characterized during different periods of the solar activity, and magnetosphere manifestation of strong optic and X-ray flares as well as of high speed solar wind streams. Different technique of particle monitoring at low Earth orbits, at geostationary orbit and in the interplanetary space is presented for previous missions as well for planned mission. The analysis of electron flux variations under Earth' radiation belts (RB) at heights ~550 km in May, 2009, is performed on the base of experimental data obtained from the satellite telescope of electrons and protons STEP-F and from the solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX as a part of scientific apparatus complex "PHOTON" on board the spacecraft "CORONAS-Photon". Based on a joint analysis of the data it was found that PIN diodes of the spectrophotometer SphinX reliably recorded also electron fluxes of low and intermediate energies as well as bremsstrahlung from construction materials of the instrument and spacecraft. Changing electron fluxes in a wide range of energies are detected at any geographic latitude and longitude due to the large geometric factor of the STEP-F detectors (~21 cm2 sr), and associated with the dynamics of the solar wind parameters as well as with the growth of magnetospheric activity. Common data processing had allowed to postulate the presence of narrow directed electron beams in outer RB at the altitude of ~550 km during a weak geomagnetic storm on May 8, 2009. At the same time in the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) region it has been observed rather isotropic distribution of electrons with energies ~200-550 keV. It was also shown that particle energetic spectra in the outer RB are much softer than in SAA, therefore effective energy threshold of electron registration for SphinX detectors decreases from ~550 keV in SAA to ~50 keV in the outer RB. The feature of the appearance of enlarged electron fluxes in the inner belt followed by significant growth in the same energy ranges in the outer radiation belt at the initial phase of magnetic storm is underlined. It was repeated for both: weak magnetic storm of May,7-8 (Dst <30 nT) and sub-storm of May, 14-15. The empirical values of various energy electron lifetimes in the basic inner and outer radiation belts are defined. The electron lifetime at low Earth orbits (LEO) is t ~1.5 days for inner belt, and t ~4.5 days for the same energy ranges. At the same time there is the tendency of lifetime declining in the outer radiation belt with the increase of electron energy as well as dependence of lifetime values as a function of pitch-angle at fixed energy.
  • American scientists confirmed availability of additional radiation belts of the Earth (NKAU, 2013.03.07)

    NASA on February, 28, 2013 in its release 13-065 announced the discovery of new radiation belt around the Earth. This belt was found at the period of high level solar activity in the slot of the inner and outer radiation belts known as Van Allen belts with the help of REPT instrument (Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope) installed aboard twin probes Van Allen Probes-A and Van Allen Probes-B. It is supposed that this radiation belt could appear as a result of coronal mass ejection on August, 31, 2012 with the further formation of interplanetary shock. In general, discovered belt was unstable structure, which was destroyed already in 4 weeks by similar interplanetary shock.

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